On the Construction of Reality in Pure Painting – Robert Delaunay
Realism is the eternal quality in art; without it there can be no permanent beauty, because it is the very essence of beauty.
Let us seek purity of means in painting, the clearest expression of beauty.
In impressionism – and I include in that term all the tendencies that reacted to it: neo-impressionism, precubism, cubism, neocubism, in other words, everything that represents technique and scientific procedure – we find ourselves face fo face with nature, far from all the correctness of ‘styles,’ whether Italian, Gothic, African, or any other.
From this point of view, impressionism is undeniably a victory, but an incomplete one. The first stammer of souls brimming over in the face of nature, and still somewhat stunned by this great reality. Their enthusiasm has done fway with all the false ideas and archaic procedures of traditional painting (draftsmanship, geometry, perspective) and has dealt a deathblow to the neoclassical, pseudo-intellectual, and moribund academy.
This movement of liberation began with the impressionists. They had had firecursors: El Greco, a few English painters, and our own revolutionary Delacroix. It was a great period of preparation in the search for the only reality: ‘light,’ which finally brought all these experiments and reactions together in impressionism. 1 ; One of the major problems of modern painting today is still the way in which jfche light that is necessary to all vital expressions of beauty functions. It was Seurat who discovered the ‘contrast of complementaries’ in light. .Seurat was the first theoretician of light. Contrast became a means of expression. His premature death broke the continuity of his discoveries. Among the impressionists, he may be considered the one who attained the ultimate in means of expression.
His creation remains the discovery of the contrast of complementary colors. (Optical blending by means of dots, used by Seurat and his associates, was only a technique; it did not yet have the importance of contrasts used as a means of construction in order to arrive at pure expression.)
He used this first means to arrive at a specific representation of nature. His paintings are kinds of fleeting images.
Simultaneous contrast was not discovered, that is to say, achieved, by the most daring impressionists; yet it is the only basis of pure expression in painting today.
Simultaneous contrast ensures the dynamism of colors and their construction in the painting; it is the most powerful means to express reality.
Means of expression must not be personal; on the contrary, they must be Within the comprehension of every intuition of the beautiful, and an artist’s metier must be of the same nature as his creative conception.
The simultaneity of colors through simultaneous contrasts and through all the (uneven) quantities that emanate from the colors, in accordance with the way they are expressed in the movement represented – that is the only reality one can construct through painting.
We are no longer dealing here either with effects (neo-impressionism within impressionism), or with objects (cubism within impressionism), or with images (the physics of cubism within impressionism).
We are attaining a purely expressive art, one that excludes all the styles of the past (archaic, geometric) and is becoming a plastic art with only one purpose: to inspire human nature toward beauty. Light is not a method, it slides toward us, it is communicated to us by our sensibility. Without the perception of light
– the eye – there can be no movement. In fact, it is our eyes that transmit the sensations perceived in nature to our soul. Our eyes are the receptacles of the present and, therefore, of our sensibility. Without sensibility, that is, without light, we can do nothing. Consequently, our soul finds its most perfect sensation of life in harmony, and this harmony results only from the simultaneity with which the quantities and conditions of light reach the soul (the supreme sense) by the intermediary of the eyes.
And the soul judges the forms of the image of nature by comparison with nature itself – a pure criticism – and it governs the creator. The creator takes note of everything that exists in the universe through entity, succession, imagination, and simultaneity.
Nature, therefore, engenders the science of painting.
The first paintings were simply a line encircling the shadow of a man made by the sun on the surface of the earth.
But how far removed we are, with our contemporary means, from these effigies – we who possess light (light colors, dark colors, their complementaries, their intervals, and their simultaneity) and all the quantities of colors emanating from the intellect to create harmony.
Harmony is sensibility ordered by the creator, who must try to render the greatest degree of realistic expression, or what might be called the subject; the subject is harmonic proportion, and this proportion is composed of various simultaneous elements in a single action. The subject is eternal in the work of art, and it must be apparent to the initiated in all its order, all its science.
Without the subject, there are no possibilities. This does not, however, mean a literary and, therefore, anecdotic subject; the subject of painting is exclusively plastic, and it results from vision. It must be the pure expression of human nature.
The eternal subject is to be found in nature itself; the inspiration and clear vision characteristic of the wise man, who discovers the most beautiful and powerful boundaries. […]
This ‘aesthetic declaration’ by Delaunay was published in full by Apollinaire in the course of his own article, ‘Reality, Pure painting’, in Der Sturm, Berlin, December 1912.